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These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production.Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate and elderberry. The earliest known traces of wine are from China (c.The juice from most purple grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice.
The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine.All these theories place the origin of the word in the same geographical location, Trans-Caucasia, that has been established based on archeological and biomolecular studies as the origin of viticulture.The red-wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin.Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine.However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out.
These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process.